Article: Basics: The SEO Starter Guide - Part One

A simple introduction to basic SEO

Basics: The SEO Starter Guide - Part One

We’re not an SEO agency per se - we do the basics well and use expertise when needed.

However, as part of our “basics” series, an introduction to SEO.

SEO – Search Engine Optimisation – is the marketing process of improving the visibility of a website in Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs) i.e. getting it near the top for a series of defined search queries keyword / keyword phrases.

There are many aspects of SEO – from the simple to the complex – and involves the content of the site, the structuring of that content, the structure and programming of the site itself as well as how the site relates to the rest of the internet – specifically in how other sites link to the site in question.

SEO writing for an audience

As mentioned in a previous article (Website Content) there are distinct audiences for a website – existing customers, potential customers and search engines to name but one segmentation. The art of effective content is developing and structuring content that “appeals” to each of these audiences, not singularly, but collectively:

  • Existing clients:
    people who are familiar with the business, its products, its brand – who have a capacity for more in-depth / involved detailed content
  • Potential clients:
    people who are unfamiliar with the business, its products and brand – and who need more “introductory” content
  • Search engines:
    algorithms which whilst very good, do not necessarily understand content the way a human does.

So, in other words effective website content can be summed up as something which: “isn’t too basic that it annoys experienced users, which isn’t too advanced that new visitors cannot comprehend easily and that is structured and worded in a way that a search engine can understand”.

But how do search engines search?

Before we get too involved, it’s worth having an overview of how search engines do their thing.

Search and index

The first part is where the search engine, via programmes called “web crawlers”, seek out content in the internet (through submitted sitemaps / links) and then index that content.

Two aspects to think about here: firstly, the search engine must be able to find the content to index it, and secondly, the content, for want of a better word, needs to be “indexable” (i.e. structured in a such a way that the search engine can understand what the page is about).


The second part is how to rank results from this index for a given search word or phrase. Google, for example, uses a multitude of algorithms to rank its search results based on a vast array of variables including the number of incoming links a page has, the quality of those links, how long the page has been existent, when it was last updated, the location of the searcher etc.

Commercial viewpoint

This is often overlooked – but search engines are businesses. Their business is to provide accurate relevant appropriate search results for any given query based on all the information that the search engine has access to (not only data about the content of web pages, but the location of the user, what device they are using, their previous search history etc.).

Therefore the results a search engine returns for a specific individual, in a specific set of circumstances, for a specific search term can be unique especially for searches which could be considered to have a geographic aspect to them (for example searching for "pub" will usually return pubs in the local vicinity if the search engine has an idea of where the user is located).

Hot Lemon’s Basic SEO Guide

There are two major aspects to SEO – “on page” and “off page”.

On-page is, as the name suggests, is related to the content, structure and operation of the page itself. This is what primarily allows search engines to “index” a site.

Off-page on the other hand is related to external factors – like the number and quality of links pointing to a specific web page. This primarily allows a search engine to “rank” that page.

For this guide we will be focusing mostly on “on-page” SEO as that is the most controllable and actionable.

Part 1: The Technical Bit

Whilst most SEO activities are focused on content, using keywords and structuring content, there are some technical aspects to it as well.

Here we will focus on three – responsiveness, speed and security.

Responsiveness: Mobile friendly

As more and more users access the web from mobile devices – search engines have responded by ranking “mobile-friendly” content higher than equivalent non-mobile friendly content – Google’s “mobile first” strategy.

Speed - it's a virtue

Likewise, Google has indicated that page speed – the speed at which a website loads and displays content – which makes the web more usable for all – is also a factor in ranking websites.All things being equal a site that loads faster will rank higher.

Security - it's becoming important

The security of a particular site has been a factor in Google's ranking algorithm since 2014, and indications are that its becoming a stronger ranking factor as time goes by.

Here we are talking about HTTPs which can confirm a site's identity through authentication and then protect any connection through encryption (the little green padlock in the URL bar). For any form of e-commerce activity - having a secure website is a must.

Other bits and bobs

There's a whole host of other technical factors which search engines take into account when ranking a site, but the above generally are deemed to be the most pertinent.

Part 2 - Research & definition - the tedious bit

Before you've even considered anything else - research and define your business, the market it operates in and the competition within that market. For example:

  • How would you describe your services and products? • How would potential customers describe your products and services (not necessarily the same as the above)?
  • How competitive is your market?
  • How do your competitors describe their products and services?
  • What "keywords" (search engine queries) would you use to find your business or your competitors business?
  • What "keywords" would you like your business to be found by?

This is important as it allows you to generate words and phrases to target.

The next step is to develop a list of keywords for your website. These are the search terms you want to be found on.

  • Step 1 - Topic list of each product or service
    for each service or product that your business offers, define a relatively generic keyword (search term you would like to be found on), for example for a garage this could be:
    • "Garage"
    • "MOTs"
    • "Servicing"
    • "Accident repair" etc.
  • Step 2 - Generate keywords for each topic
    for each of the topics above generate a list of keywords that you think potential customers will use to find content related to that particular topic – the idea here is to come up with a list that can then be shortened later.

    In this list we want a mix of "head terms" (more generic terms) and "long-tail" keywords (longer phrases - usually more specific).

    To make this easier - use Google&'s "related searches" (usually at the bottom of search results) and also review what your competitors are targeting.

    For example, if we took "Servicing" from above we could come up with:
    • "main dealer servicing"
    • "main dealer service discount"
    • "main dealer service warranty"
    • "cheap servicing"
    • "what is covered by a service"
    • "is a service the same as an MOT" etc.
  • Step 3 - Review and quantify
    Use a tool like Google's Keyword Planner to narrow down your list of search terms (as identified above). Specifically, we don't want to search terms with too many queries (too competitive) or too few (not worth the effort).

Following this simple process should generate a comprehensive list of keywords to use in the next stages. Note though – search patterns change on a regular basis – so it is important that these keywords are reviewed on a regular basis (quarterly or half-yearly for example).

The key here is not to be overly ambitious. The more popular search terms will undoubtedly be the most competitive and focusing on these alone will put you in head to head competition with other sites (if other qualifiers like location and the like are not taken into consideration).

Part 3 - developing a robust structure

We generally prefer and recommend a more granular site structure for our clients. Specifically, each topic or subject area has its own dedicated page of content. So, for example, a business with five distinct services would have at least five pages of content describing each of those services - more if the particular service or topic area is quite complex.

Ideally these pages will focus on a specific keyword / phrases that are related to the particular service offered – as researched. This means that each page has a distinct focus (keyword focus) which will allow for more accurate indexing (and potential linking to).

Whilst there is a trend (usually by the creative industries) to have single page websites (everything fitted on one page, sectioned by appropriate HTML (which makes sites much more responsive on a mobile device)) we wouldn’t recommend it for the majority of our clients, unless they have only one area of specific focus which they want to gain search engine visibility for.

Further, develop a structure for your website that uses your identified keywords (in terms of naming pages / categories / tags and the like) rather than using generic terms.

Part 4 – hidden bits: meta-tags n stuff

For each structured web page, there can be a number of “hidden” fields which aren’t necessarily visible to the visitor of the page. These “meta-tags” were created in the good ole days to help simple search engines index web pages – for example “meta-keywords”.

These were so abused in the early days that most search engines ignore them completely or treat them with the digital equivalent of a pinch of salt.

The only meta-tags worth the effort nowadays are “meta-title” (which is actually displayed as the title of the browser window) and the “meta-description” which is often used in search engine result pages as the description of the page it’s linking to.

Search engines nowadays focus much more on visible content.

Part 5 – The meaty bit: Content

There is an old saying in SEO – “Content is King”. That is as true now as it was in the good ole days.

Whilst opinions are varied on the precise weight that content has in achieving good search engine rankings, the over-riding opinion is that it is the most important single factor.

Content is what is indexed

The content of a web page (text, images, videos, links, coding) is what search engines actually index, therefore content should be structured in a way to help search engines understand the subject and context of the content on the page. Content isn’t only text – images, videos and links are also “content” and are indexed as well, and search engines allow people to search on these separately (i.e. Google’s image search).

Content should include the keywords (as identified above – which will aid in the page being indexed correctly) and should be written with the user (reader) in mind. Search engines have become very adept at identifying content that has been written for search engines (i.e. keyword stuffing) and not for the reader of the page.

As mentioned in “website structure” each page of content should ideally be focussed on a particular topic (keywords /phrases), whilst it is tempting to discuss several topics on one page of content – this does not aid search engines in accurately identifying and indexing the focus of the page.

Structuring content

  • Use the identified keywords /phrases for the page throughout the page’s content (do not over-use as that can constitute “keyword stuffing”) and maintain focus on the particular topic
  • Content at the top of a page has more weight attached to it than content at the bottom of a page (search engines assume the important stuff will be mentioned first)
  • Non-text content (images, videos, links etc.) needs to be properly coded, named and titled – for example image files should have a descriptive file name, description and title
  • Use descriptive keyword focussed headings and titles throughout the page. These are given extra weight by search engines (only use one “H1” heading, and structure the rest of the page using cascading headings/titles (i.e. H1, H2, H3, H4 etc.)
  • Use bold text / italics to emphasise keyword phrases within the text – but do so sparingly

Other considerations

  • Never plagiarise – search engines are very adept at identifying copied or “skimmed” content and will penalise a pages rank appropriately
  • Don’t have long lists of links to other sites – search engines may think your spamming these links. And if you are linking to another site – try to ensure it is relevant to the focus of the page

Part 6 – Off page – link building & ranking

The above handy five-step process is a good basis to get good “on page” SEO. However, that is only part of the challenge. The other part is “off-page” – essentially gaining external validation to the site / page to give search engines confidence in the content and veracity of the page.

This is worthy of a separate article, and we will link to it from here once created.

Final thoughts on SEO

It’s important to remember that whilst good SEO can deliver an excellent return on investment (ROI) there are alternatives – especially relevant for new market categories / entrants as well as highly competitive markets. For example, paid for advertising – both search, digital and traditional – as well as social media.

Whilst these alternatives on average do not have the same ROI as SEO, some businesses prefer the immediacy, control and other businesses, in competitive markets, may feel they have little choice.